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#1574 new bug

Organizational communications, their functions and problems

Reported by: anonymous Owned by: srkline
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Organizational communications, their functions and problems
Communication processes, in which employees of the management apparatus are involved, are vital links between the manager and his subordinates, between the managers of the same level, between the organization and the external environment. In general, the transfer of information from one person to another is commonly referred to as communication. The exchange of information between the manager, the management body and the executives is all communication.

Information is basic to an organization's competitive ability. The manager is interested in information about individuals and entities, advanced technology, the economic and financial situation, etc. Operative, reliable, authentic and timely information is the basis of the management process, and the quality of enterprise management largely depends on how perfect it is.

Information can be taken into consideration by the head, serve as a basis for future decisions, expand knowledge and outlook. Without information it is impossible to work together under conditions of division of labor, lack of necessary information as well as excess of unnecessary information disorients any economic activity.

In daily work, a manager must use information from various available sources - superiors, subordinates, managers of the same level, customers, suppliers, etc. Communication processes enable managers to do their jobs effectively and make decisions about the best strategy to achieve their goals.

  1. The concept and meaning of organizational communications

Before defining the concept of communication process, we need to give the concept of information. By information we mean a set of information and signals about processes and phenomena occurring in the external environment and the human body itself, all human behavior is caused by some received, assimilated and processed information. Management information is a set of information about the state and processes occurring inside and outside the organization.

Communication in an organizational context includes interaction between people. It is the process of exchanging information and transferring information between individuals or groups of individuals. Organizational communication is the process by which managers develop a system for providing information to large numbers of people within the organization and to individuals and institutions outside the organization. It serves as an essential tool in coordinating the activities of organizational units and provides essential information at all levels of management.

Organizational communications are important to managers for the following reasons:

1) managers spend most of their time on communications. According to many experts, 75-95% of managers' time is spent on this. Therefore, they should be interested in improving this type of activity;

2) communications are necessary for management effectiveness;

3) communications are also necessary for asserting authority and expressing the will of the manager;

4) Well-established communications contribute to organizational effectiveness. If an organization is effective in communication, it is also effective in all other activities.

  1. Functions of Organizational Communication

It is accepted to distinguish between four main functions of communication in a group or organization as a whole:

Control - Through communication, the behavior of group members is controlled. In organizations, there is a hierarchy and a formal chain of command that workers must adhere to. When an employee, for example, is asked to align his or her actions with the company's strategy, communicativeness performs a controlling function;

Motivation - organizational communication enhances motivation by communicating to workers what needs to be done, how to improve performance of desktop wallpaper, etc;

Emotional expression - for most people, their work is the primary source of social interaction. Communicativeness, which is carried out in a group, is the mechanism by which group members express their attitudes toward what is happening. Thereby communicativeness contributes to the emotional expression of workers and allows the realization of social needs;

And finally, the function of information transfer proper - this function is related to the role of communicativeness in the decision-making process. It makes it possible to provide the data that individuals and groups need to make decisions by conveying information to identify and evaluate alternative solutions. Currently, according to some researchers, managers are facing serious problems in the formation of the information space, related in particular to the increase in the amount of information needed to make managerial decisions.
The transfer of information or communicative flow goes in three directions:

top-down (task assignment, instruction);

from bottom to top (reports on the results of the check, reports on the execution of tasks, the personal opinion of employees, etc.);

horizontally (exchange of opinions, coordination of actions).

There are four main elements in the communication process:

Sender or source - the person transmitting the information. Sources of information can be internal and external. Internal include: accounting and statistical reports, customer accounts, current observations, special studies. External sources are more numerous and diverse. First of all, here it is necessary to distinguish employees with their ideas, intentions, information and purpose of communication; partners; mass media, etc.

Particular attention should be paid to oral information. Psychologists point out that a person does not perceive all the information that comes to him. This depends on many reasons of a subjective nature: the personality of the person giving information and the personality of the one receiving it, the physical capacity of the senses of both, the warehouse and traits of their characters and a number of other reasons.

Listening to a person, you should carefully observe his behavior - gestures, facial expressions, posture, gaze, his clothes and shoes, manners and other forms of external expression of individuality;

the message, i.e., the information itself;
channel, i.e. the means of transmitting information. Businesses are known to use several channels of communication both internally and externally. The most commonly used include: couriers, postal communication, telephone, radio, e-mail, local network, and finally, verbal discussion;

recipient - the person (executor, manager) to whom the information is intended.

In the communication process, the sender and receiver of information constantly change places.

In addition, organizational communication includes:

coding - this is the translation of the source's ideas into a systematic set of symbols into language that expresses the source's purpose;

signal transmission - the purpose of the source of communication is expressed as a signal, the form of which depends largely on the channel used;

decoding-receiving - for the communication process to be complete, the signal must be decoded;

feedback-the communication source hopes that its signal will have a high degree of accuracy. Since the accuracy of the signal is rarely perfect, providing feedback in the communication process is desirable.

  1. Major problems in organizational communications

Communication experts believe that, first, the most important factor that disrupts "commonality" in communications between source and receiver is the changes that occur in its coding and decoding. The most effective communications are established when the coding and decoding processes are uniform. When they become dissimilar, communication breaks down. Norbert Wiener called this problem entropy, that is, the tendency of human communication processes to dissipate.

This tendency occurs when workers in an organization have different experiences, vocabulary, knowledge, interests, etc. This results in barriers to effective communication, which translates into inaccurate coding and decoding.
Numerous guidelines and rules are known to ensure the effective perception of managerial information in the communication process. Their main emphasis is to remove all hindrances and barriers relating to the behavior of those receiving business information.

Very often, the consequence of "wrong" communications or lack of organizational communications is a decrease in the effectiveness of the whole enterprise. For example, people are working on a project, but don't know that another division in the company is working on the same or similar issue, or a similar project was done a couple of years ago, and the problem has already been solved.

"If Hewlett-Packard knew everything Hewlett-Packard knows, it would be three times more profitable," remarked Lew Plath, president of Hewlett-Packard Corporation. These words are relevant to any company, organization or firm. Knowledge management, information management technologies can and should be used to increase the efficiency of an organization by eliminating double work. Efficiency is the ability to simply and quickly use your prior experience and the experience of others.

It is possible to formulate a number of questions, the answers to which characterize the effectiveness of the use of organizational communications:
1) How easy is it for employees to find the information they need for their daily work?

2) Do groups or individuals deal with the same problems repeatedly?

3) Does the organization encourage teamwork, information sharing, finding new opportunities to share information?

Second, the communication process relies heavily on a well-functioning feedback process, the quality of which determines how the message is heard and understood. The sender of information waits that the recipient of information somehow confirmed the fact of receipt of the message, the degree of understanding or misunderstanding of its meaning, in other words, established a feedback. Ideally, this should occur without delay (if possible, be conditioned in advance), be couched in a form appropriate to the situation, take into account the possibilities of perception.

Verbal feedback signals can be clarification, generalization, and expression of feelings. Since they can be quite weak, the reaction sometimes needs to be specifically monitored.

For the manager, information exchange can be considered effective if the recipient has understood the idea and performed the actions that the manager expected from him.

It should be noted that information exchange is facilitated by:

  • brevity, clarity, unambiguity of information;
  • constant control over their content, the processes of transmission and reception;
  • coordination of information processing, etc.

Lack of feedback leads to the fact that the manager is not able to assess how effectively he/she is communicating and how to improve the accuracy of signals in future communications.

The manager can use both direct feedback and indirect methods of feedback. For example, a decrease in production efficiency, an increase in absenteeism and turnover, or poor coordination between departments may indicate that communication is deteriorating.

Thirdly, as we know there are different types of communication networks, for example: a network in the form of a circle, which is active, unorganized, unstable; a network in the form of a wheel - it is inactive, well and steadily organized.

Along with them, in almost all organizations there are informal networks of communication, sometimes called "[computer notification]". According to many scientists, it would be quite reasonable to use the solutions accumulated in this network for collective work, flexibly and systematically spreading the folklore experience among employees.

And, although informal communication contributes to the more effective functioning of the formal transfer of commands and is a very rapid form of information dissemination, but at the same time, they quite often distort information and unwittingly become an obstacle to the successful communication process. In addition, informal communication networks do not have a clear structure for assigning responsibility and accountability.
Organizational communication is the process of transferring information from one person to another. The rapid receipt of all kinds of information is one of the prerequisites for accelerating the development of production. The well-known saying "He who has the information rules the world" becomes more and more meaningful. Features of information as a resource are its inexhaustibility, persistence, the possibility of parallel use, the ease of transfer.

Today organizational communications have become the most important resource of socio-economic, technical, technological development of any organization, they are like a catalyst of scientific and technological progress.

Exchange of knowledge, information is an integral part of the working process of employees. People share information all the time - in the lobby, on the phone, via e-mail, and as a rule this process is not ordered. Therefore, improving the quality and speed of this process is the first goal any organization must set for itself if it wants to be competitive.

The value of information increases when it is reliable and provided at the right time and in full. And this is greatly facilitated by improving the channels of information exchange. The use of various information technologies makes it possible to systematically accumulate knowledge and structure it so that people get the right data at the right time and are not distracted by untimely information or outdated data.

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